In most European countries, the scale used is the MSK seismic proposed in 1964 by S. V. Medvedev, W. Sponheuer and V. Karnik in collaboration with a working group set up by the XIII General Assembly of the IUGG (Berkeley, 1963). In Spain it is used as official scale and is published in Earthquake-resistant Standard 1974 (BOE 09.21.1974, decreto3209/1974) today revoked by the present Earthquake-resistant Construction Standard:
Party General and Building (NCSE-94; BOE 8-2 - 1995 ).
a) directions phenomena perceived by people and their environment
b) The damage to buildings according to their types.
c) The changes noticed in the nature
The terms of the amount used in the definition of the degrees of intensity correspond to approximately the following percentages:
Some ................ 5%
Many ............... 50%
Most .......... 75%
Class 1 - Damage slight: Cracks in coatings, drop small pieces of siding.
Class 2 - Moderate damage: Cracks in the walls, drop large chunks of carpet, tile fall, fall of parapet walls, cracks in the chimneys and even partial collapses on them.
Class 3 - Serious damage: Cracks in the walls, fallen chimneys of factory or other elements.
Class 4 - Destruction: Gaps in the walls resistant partial collapse, loss of connection between different parts of the building, destruction of walls and enclosing walls.
Class 5 - Collapse: complete ruin of the building.
The shock is not perceived by human senses, being detected and recorded only by seismographs.
The shock is perceptible only by some people to sleep , particularly in the upper floors of buildings.
The shock is perceived by some people inside the buildings and only under very favorable circumstances outside the same . The perceived vibration is similar to that caused by the passage of a light truck. Very careful observers may notice slight roll of hanging objects, more pronounced in the upper floors of buildings.
The earthquake is felt by many people inside the buildings and some abroad. Some people who sleep wake up, but no one is frightened. The vibration is comparabla to that produced by the passage of a heavy truck load. The windows, doors and dishes rattle. The floors and walls produce clicks. The furniture starts moving. Liquids in containers flutter open slightly. Hanging objects swing lightly.
a) The earthquake is felt in the interior of buildings for the most people and many in the exterior. Many people who sleep and wake up some flee. The animals are nervous. The buildings are shaken with a general vibration. Hanging objects will swing widely. The pictures on the walls hit or are thrown out of the site. In some cases pendulum clocks stop. The lightweight objects move or turn over. The doors and windows open fight with violence. Small amount is poured liquids in containers open and full. The vibration is felt in the construction as that produced by dragging a heavy object.
b) In the construction of type are possible slight damage ( Class 1 )
c), In some cases, modifying the flow of the springs.
a) I feel the majority of people both inside and outside the buildings. Many people take to the streets in fear. Some people can lose balance. Domestic animals fleeing the stables. Sometimes, the crockery and glassware are broken., Books falling off shelves, move boxes and unstable objects overturned. The heavy furniture can get moving. The small bells and bell towers are ringing.
b) are produced moderate damage ( Class 2 ) in some buildings in the type . Light damage occurs ( Class 1 ) in some constructions of B and many of type .
c) In some cases, cracks can open up to a centimeter wide in moist soils. Landslides may occur in the mountains. There are changes in the flow of the springs, and the water level of wells.
a) The majority of people are terrified and runs the street. Many have difficulty keeping up. The vibrations were felt by people driving cars. Large bells ring.
b) Many buildings in the type suffered severe damage ( Class 3 ) and some even destruction ( Class 4 ).
Many buildings in the B suffer moderate damage ( Class 2 )
Some buildings in the type C experienced light damage ( Class 1 )
c) In some cases, landslides occur on roads that run on hillsides with steep slopes, damage occurs in the joints of pipes and cracks appear in walls of stone.
wave is observed in the ponds and the water is turbid by mud removal. Change the water level of wells and springs flow. In some cases, return to flow springs were dry and others that flowed dry. In some cases, spills occur on slopes of sand or gravel.
a) Fear and panic, even people who drive cars. In some cases, break off branches of trees. The furniture, including heavy, move or turn over. The hanging lamps were partially damaged.
b) Many buildings type suffer destruction ( Class 4 ) and some collapse ( class 5 )
Many buildings B suffered severe damage ( Class 3 ) and some destruction ( Class 4 ).
Many buildings type C suffer moderate damage ( Class 2 ) and some severe ( Class 3 ).
Sometimes there is some breakage of pipes together. The statues and monuments move and rotate. Crumbling stone walls.
c) Small landslides on the slopes of ravines and in the trenches and embankments with steep slopes. Cracks in the ground several inches wide. It muddies the water of the lakes. There are new springs. Water wells have become dry and dry existing wells. In many cases changes the flow and the level of water from springs and wells.
a) Panico general. Considerable damage furniture. The animals are confused and broadcast their unique sounds.
b) Many buildings type suffer collapse ( class 5 ).
Many buildings B suffer destruction ( Class 4 ) and some collapse ( class 5 ).
Many buildings in the type C suffered severe damage ( Class 3 ), and some destruction ( Class 4 ).
Caen monuments and columns. Considerable damage deposit of liquids. Partially break underground pipes. In some cases, bend railroad rails and roads are out of service.
c) is often observed extrusions produced water, sand and mud in the saturated land . Open cracks in the ground for up to 10 cm long and more than 10 inches on the slopes and on the banks of the rivers. They appear in addition, numerous small cracks in the ground. Rock falls and avalanches. Many landslides. Big waves in lakes and reservoirs. Renewing dry wells and other existing dry-
a) The majority of the buildings of type suffer collapse ( class 5 ).
Many buildings in the type B suffer collapse ( class 5 ).
Many buildings type C suffer destruction ( Class 4 ) and some collapse ( class 5 ).
dangerous damage to dams, bridges serious damage. The rails of railroads and sometimes deviate sag. Underground pipes are twisted or broken. The street paving and asphalt form large waves.
b) cracks in the floor of few inches wide that can reach one meter. Wide cracks are produced alongside the watercourses. Loose landslides on hillsides with steep slopes. On the banks of rivers and on steep hillsides significant landslides occur. Movement of sand and mud in coastal areas. Changing water levels in wells. The water from canals and rivers is thrown off its normal course. New lakes are formed.
a) Major damage to buildings, even in well-made, bridges, dams and railway lines. The major highways are out of service. Underground pipes are destroyed.
b) The field is considerably distorted by both horizontal and vertical displacements and wide cracks. Many landslides and rock falls.
To determine the intensity of seismic shaking needed special investigations.
a) are practically destroyed or severely damaged all structures, including the underground. c) The topography changes. Large cracks in the ground with significant horizontal and vertical displacements. Rock falls and landslides in the steep valleys, produced in vast areas. Valleys are closed and transformed into lakes. Appear waterfalls and rivers are diverted.
Seismic Record Unit
Universidad de Alicante Carretera de San Vicente del Raspeig s/n 03690 San Vicente del Raspeig Alicante (Spain)
Tel: (+34) 96 590 3400Fax: (+34) 96 590 3464