Títol: Acte pel cinquanta aniversari de l'Acadèmia Basca a París
Duració: 11 min., 56 seg.
Fons sonor: Ràdio París. Ramírez/del Campo
Resum: Entrevista al profesor Antonio Tovar Llorente y Jesús María de Leizaola Sánchez (Lehendakari en el exilio entre 1960 y 1979), durante el 50 aniversario de la Academia de la Lengua Vasca
The nationalist project Spanish of the Franco regime conceived to Spain and a homogeneus reality, by what was precise to delete all shot of heterogeneity, already was political, ideological, identity or cultural. Thus, cultures and tongues like the Galician, the Catalan and the Basque, were condemned to the marginalidad. And although between ends of the years forty (1946) began to tolerate the publication of books and later magazines (1959) in what defined like “vernacular tongues” (in comparison to the previous stages, of fierce linguistic and cultural repression), the only official tongue recognised by the dictatorship was the Spanish.
On the other hand, the own cultural elements of the distinct “nationalities” historical, were tolerated only like part of the varied folklore of what, purportedly, constituted the essence of "the Spanish”. A folklore, obviously, tergiversado, manipulated, and private of his character reivindicativo and identitario, transformed in product of consumption of masses, and used like a form more than social demobilisation, practically equiparable (saving the distances) to the panem et circenses roman.
There were three ways for the development of these cultures and these tongues. The two first result evident: the exile and the secrecy, seat the third the treat to take advantage of the narrow legal courses. In the Basque Country, where the culture was escindida between the Basque-Spanish and the etno-euskaldun (FUSI, 1999), the use of the tongue turned into political symbol of the resistance, and the inner cultural activity took refuge precisely in some institutions, associations and demonstrations of cultural nature and folklórica, as also recreational and even sportive, with strong support of prominent sectors of the Basque clergy (RIQUER, Borja of, 2010). It does not be necessary to forget in this appearance that the talks of the Father Olaso (Basque priest exiled Alberto Onaindía) were one of the active main of “Radio París” between 1946 and 1957. And in fact, calculate that there was a total of 16 Basque priests fusilados by the troops of Franco during the civil war, accused of nationalist political activity.
During the years sixty, and under the direction of André Camp, “Radio París” it developed broadcasts in Catalan, Galician and Basque. In this context, and with clear confluencia between exile, secrecy and cultural demonstrations “tolerated” by the diet, appeared equally in “Radio París” big number of broadcasts, oriented to difundir and strengthen the national identity of the Basque village in his group (including to the French Basque Country), always in an anti-francoist sense. The program “Irrintzi: of Paris to the Basque Village all over the world” it was one of the clearest examples, but no the only. Like this, there were broadcasts recorded to both sides of the Pyrenees on:
-The Basque Choral Movement, whose origin trace back to the 19th century: Presentation of the Basque ballet Etorki in Paris, Chorus Etorki, Basque chorus, txistu, Coral Irunesa of Camera, Coral Santa Cecilia of Saint Sebastian, Choral Grouping of Camera of Pamplona. Here we highlight the famous Eresoinka (choir national Basque), created by Gabriel Olaizola Gabarain in 1937 by order of Lehendakari José Antonio Aguirre, which functioned during the war and from exile by way of cultural resistance.
-Tamborrada donostiarra, of military original meaning: Irrintzi III, Days touristic gastronómicas of the southwest of France in Biarritz I and II
All they cultural demonstrations folklóricas gifted of a big political load nationalist solapada.
Of the same way, informed of any celebrated activity in France related with the Basque Country, always with a political motive, as for example:
-The fifty anniversary of the Society Euskalduna of Paris: 50 anniversary of the Society Euskalduna of París I and II
-The fifty anniversary of the Basque Academy: 50 anniversary of the Basque Academy
-Party of exaltation of the tongue and Basque values, that well could belong to any one of the previous acts: Party of exaltation of the Basque language
-Representation of Matalas, pastoral Basque, on the figure of a hero that for the Basque nationalism defended Euskal Herria: Matalas
It is necessary to take into account besides that Julián Antonio Ramírez was very tied to the Basque Country. It had been born in him (was donostian), had formed there, had combated in the front North during the civil war, and knew the language to perfection. Although never it identified with the independentism.
University of Alicante. University library. Fonoteca