The definitions of types of disasters were compiled by the Centre of Investigation on epidemiology of the Disasters (CRED) and base in a glossary elaborated by the Office of the Coordinator of the United Nations for the Aid in Cases of Disaster (UNDRO), current Department of Humanitarian Subjects (DHA). The scientific committee and technician of the Decenio International for the Reduction of the Natural Disasters (DIRDN) also contributed to the formulation of the terms that appear to continuation. The other definitions are taken of the content of the Series 3000 in his previous versions and of other documents de la Cruz Red Colombian like the Manual of Research and Rescue. The medical terms are taken of diverse dictionaries and skilled texts in trauma.
TECHNOLOGICAL INDUSTRIAL / ACCIDENT: accidental release occurred during the production, transport and handle of dangerous chemicals.
NUCLEAR ACCIDENT*: accidental Leakage of radiation, that occurs in nuclear eases civilians, and that exceed the levels of security established internationally.
ACCELERATION*: Variation of the speed in function of the time. It uses in the seismic engineering to define the vibratory movement of the floor or of the structures; it expresses in fraction of gravity (g).
ACELERÓGRAFO*: Instrument to register the acceleration.
ACCUMULATION OF RESERVATIONS*: The process of previous identification, availability and storage of supplies that will need to answer to disasters.
WARNING*: Dissemination of signals of imminent danger that can include warnings of measure of protection. See also “alerts”.
AFFECTED: victim of the disaster that requires support limited to recover of the damages produced by the disaster, by a lower degree of unsatisfied basic needs owing to this, regarding the victim.
VOLUNTARY AGENCIES (VOLAG)*: Agencies no governmental or organisations that exist in a lot of countries in the world. Some have personal trained pair the prevention of disasters. Some Volags are qualified to take part of local and international way.
SEISMIC ISOLATION*: System used pair limit the transfer of strong movements of earth to the structures.
ALARM: warnings or signals by which informs to the community so that they follow specific instructions of emergency because of the real or imminent presence of a threat.
HOSTEL IN PASSING: safe place where the community situates to take refuge of the disaster, immediately after the impact, used while it realises the register, verification and accreditation of the families victims, and the preparation of the temporary accommodation.
ALERT: previous period to the occurrence of a disaster, declared with the end to take specific cautions, because of the likely and near occurrence a disaster.
HYDROLOGICAL ALERT*: Information of emergency on a hydrological phenomenon expected that it considers dangerous.
BASIC FOODS*: Food that is usually consumed in a country or community, and of where obtains a substantial proportion of the total supply of calories.
TEMPORARY ACCOMMODATION: like a previous hostel to the definite houses, or simply n shelter while the houses affected can enable again. It fits to annotate that what before begin the process of reconstruction, so much lower will be the social and economic costs of the disaster.
HEIGHT OF ESCORRENTÍA*: Volume of escorrentía of a basin divided by his area for a time given.
AMBÚ ®: Mark registered of some elements for procedures and training in reanimation. Usually used by the personnel of health to designate to the system of stock exchange autoinflable, unidirectional valve and chewed (or tube endotraqueal) used to ventilate to a patient during the reanimation.
THREAT: external factor to an exposed community (or to an exposed system), represented by the potential occurrence of a phenomenon (or accident) trigger, which can produce a disaster when manifesting .
CUSHION*: Limitation of movement or dissipation of energy.
AMPLITUDE*: The difference between the level zero and a beak of any wave, like the seismic waves.
AMTOR: Way of transmission of data by the system Telex Over Radius, can communicate to two stations at the same time at most in a frequency, of the aptest ways for the frequencies HF (> 30 Mhz). ANR: National association of Rescue.
ANEMOMETER*: Device that measures the wind speed, to the speed and wind direction.
ANTICYCLONE* (area of high pressure, high): Region where the barometric pressure is high compared with regions aledañas that find to the same level.
APD: Course of Administration For Disasters, international methodology promoted in Latin America by USAID-OFDA.
APPLICATIONS OF THE SATELLITE*: The use of the technology of the satellite for purposes of communications or transmission of data for the monitory, the warning and the dissemination of pertinent information for answers of emergency and/or handle of disasters.
SAND MOVEDIZA*: Tanks of saturated sand, that under the influence of hydrostatic pressures, float and are able to flow.
ASÍSMICO*: No seismic, used to designate a free area of seismic activity or process of tectonic deformation that is not accompanied of seismic phenomena.
INITIAL ATTENTION OF URGENCIES: all the actions realised to a person with pathology of urgency and that tend to stabilise it in his vital signs, realise a diagnostic of impression and define him the immediate destination, taking like base the level of attention and the degree of complexity of the entity that will realise the definite attention.
ATTENTION PREHOSPITALARIA (APH): it comprises all the actions of rescue, rescue and medical attention that offer him to an urgent patient in the place of the emergency and during his transport to the centre asistencial of reception or when it is remitted of a centre asistencial to another.
ATLS ® : Course of Vital Support Advanced in Trauma, his contents are reviewed each four years by the Committee of Trauma of the American School of Surgeons, those who promote his international diffusion.
AVALANCHA: Fast and sudden slide of incoherent masses, usually mixes of snow/rocky/material ice.
LIKELY MAXIMUM AVENUE (AVENUE OF PROJECT)*: Maximum avenue that fits to expect, taking into account all the geographic factors, meteorological, hydrological and geological conditionings.
BAROMETER*: Instrument to measure the atmospheric pressure.
BLOCKADE OF ICE*: Accumulation of ice in a determinate place, that in a river hinders the flow of the water.
BOMB*: See “material of expulsion”.
RESEARCH: it consists in the application of technicians of track, location, location, detection of the victims of a disaster or accident, using for this special tools of visual detection, thermal, audible, electronic, animal (dogs of rescue) and, especially, human resource.
RESEARCH And RESCUE (RESCUE)*: The process to locate and recobrar to the victims of disasters and of the application of first helps and of basic medical assistance that it can be required.
CACH: Centre of attention and classification of injured.
FALL*: See “desprendimiento of rocks”.
PUBLIC CALAMITY: situation in which it presents damage or alteration of the normal conditions of life in a determinate geographic area, caused by natural phenomena and by catastrophic effects of the action of the in shape accidental man, that do not require in his phase of recovery of actions of reconstruction, sufficing with the ones of rehabilitation to recover the normality.
CALCULATION OF PROPAGATION OF DISCHARGE*: See “propagation of the wave of avenue”.
CLIMATIC CHANGE*: Change observed in the climate, under a global scale, regional or subregional caused by natural processes and/or human activity.
CHANNEL OF EVACUATION OF GROWN*: Channel built to pour the flow of water of a point water arriba de a region to another point water down.
CARESTÍA Or BAD HARVEST: abnormal reduction of the harvest, whose performance is insufficient to cover the economic and nutritious needs of the community. This class of disaster is always the consequence of another different, and therefore it has to register under the main cause.
LOAD OF THE WIND (PRESSURE OF WIND)*: total Strength that the wind exerts on a structure. For flat surfaces; it is the sum of the dynamic pressure exerted on the exposed side to the wind, and the decrease of the pressure or succión produced in the side protected of the wind.
DISCHARGE*: Volume of water that flows through a transversal section by unit of time.
CENTRE OF OPERATIONS OF EMEERGENCIA (COE)*: Eases officially designed for the direction and coordination of all the activities during the phase of answer to the disaster.
CICLÓN: In this denomination include the HURRICANES and the typhoons. Enclosed system of circulation on a large scale, inside the atmosphere, with barometric pressure drop and strong winds that rotan in contrary direction to the manecillas of the clock in the hemisphere North, and in direction of the manecillas of the clock in the hemisphere South. In the Ocean Indicate and in the Peaceful south designates them like this (see hurricane and typhoon).
CICLÓN TROPICAL*: generic Term that designates a ciclón of scale sinóptica no frontal that originates on the tropical waters or subtropicales and presents a convection organised and a cyclonic circulation characterised by the wind of surface.
Tropical perturbation: winds of light surface with indications of cyclonic circulation.
Tropical depression: wind speed of until 33knots.
Tempestad Tropical: maximum speed of the wind of 34 to 47 knots.
Hurricane: maximum speed of the wind of 64 knots or more.
Typhoon: maximum speed of the wind of 64 knots or more.
Ciclón Tropical (southwest of the ocean Indicate): maximum speed of the wind of 64 to 90 knots.
Ciclón Tropical (bay of Flare, sea of Arabia, sudeste of the ocean Indicate, Pacífico meridional): maximum speed of the wind of 34 knots or more.
CINÓFILO: I instrument man-dog, more specifically is applied to the dogs of research.
SEISMIC BELT*: Zone of terrain lengthened, usually located the long of the limits of a tectonic layer.
CISS: Committee Interinstitucional of the Sector Health.
CLASSIFICATION OF DAMAGES*: Evaluation and register of damages to structures, eases or objects of agreement to three (or more) categories:
That makes impossible the use ulterior for which were allocated, the structure, the eases or the object.
Or the degree of damages to the main members, that makes impossible the effective use for which were allocated, the structure, the eases or the object, unless they effect greater repairs without arriving to complete reconstructions.
Such like windows broken, small damages to ceilings and walls, septums derrumbados, walls cracked, etc. The damage is not the sufficiently big as to make impossible the use of the installation.
CLOROFLUROCARBONOS (CFC)*: Group of chemical components used in the industry and the home, of which thinks that the excessive and universal use is one of the causes of the ozone depletion, causing damages in the environment.
COE: Operative committee of Emergency.
I COLLAPSE OF BUILDINGS Or STRUCTURES: it Involves the sudden collapse of a construction in absence of all external strength. In a wider sense the collapse can be caused by some external agent (earthquakes, tornados, explosions, etc.) the disaster has to register under the causal factor original.
PUBLIC CONSCIOUSNESS (SENSITISATION)*: Process of information to the community of the nature of the danger and the necessary actions to save lives and properties before and during the disaster.
INTERNATIONAL CONFLICTS: bellicose clashes between the fuerzas armadas of two to more countries. They can give origin to movements in big scale of refugees and people displaced.
NATIONAL CONFLICTS: (civil riots, civil war): hostilities between armed groups of a same country, that take place inside his borders. The clashes can pose massive sanitary problems, like epidemics, fault of drinkable water, accumulation of rubbish, trip of people, refugees, carestía, hunger, etc.
POLLUTION: degradation of one or more elements or appearances of the environment, because of industrial scraps, chemists or biological harmful, from wastes of products done by the man and of badly handle of the natural and environmental resources.
ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION: enrarecimiento of the atmosphere because of gases, solids and radiation like result of burns it of a natural or artificial fuel, of chemical and industrial processes, as well as of nuclear explosions.
POLLUTION BY OIL: pollution of oceans, lakes and rivers. It results of the poured of hydrocarbons (generally oil and crudes), accidental or caused, from cisternas, fuselages tank and pipelines, during the transport or the storage. The oil slicks are tanks of big volumes of hydrocarbons that cover the coastal zones of tide, ocasionados by spill or poured accidental that are used to to occur during storms or collisions.
CHEMICAL POLLUTION: sudden pollution of the water or of the air in the inmediaciones of the industrial zones, that cause desordenes organic that they can be fatal for the human being, or external conditions that leave permanent sequelas in the skin or some another organ.
CONTRIBUTIONS IN SPECIES*: Assistance done with materials or services for the needs in case of disaster.
CONTROL OF GROWN*: I Handle of the resources of water through constructions of dams, dam, etc. to avoid floods.
CONTROL OF ILLNESSES*: All the politics and measures of caution taken to warn shoots or propagation of illnesses transmisibles.
CONTROL OF TORRENT*: Structure of rock (or other materials) built to detain the erosion of the course.
VECTORIAL CONTROL*: Measures taken to diminish the number of organisms bearers of illnesses (vector) and diminish the risk of the propagation of illnesses infecciosas.
CORTAVIENTO*: Barrier used to diminish the wind speed.
CPI: Course of Qualification For Instructors, international methodology promoted in Latin America by USAID-OFDA.
CRAMP: Scale of assessment of patients politraumatizados, created in 1967, each letter corresponds to the systems that evaluates, to know: Circulatory, Respiratory, Abdomen, Engine and Word.
GROWN ANNUAL*: maximum Discharge in a year.
GROWN OF PROJECT*: Hidrograma of grown or maximum download adopted for the design of a hydraulic structure or control of rivers.
GROWN Or AVENUE*: Increase significante of the level of water of a course of water, lake, reservation or coastal region.
GROWN SUDDEN: volume of water of sudden accumulation and of big discharge; it causes floods, and by his nature is difficult to foresee.
CRISTALOIDES: Liquids for intravenous administration, designate like this by that when evaporating all the water his components purchase form of glasses. In reanimation refers mainly to the Solution Salina to 0.9% and to the Solution of Lactato Ringer.
CRITIC (PATIENT Or LESIONADO): it Is all patient whose life depend on his immediate attention.
CUENCA OF DRAINAGE*: Area that has common drainages for his drain.
CUENCA Or SLOPE OF WATER*: Tierra confined by the divisional of drainage that has an only exit for his escorrentía superficial.
CURVE OF COST (TABLE OF COST)*: Curve that shows the relation between the level of water and the discharge of a course of water in a station hidrométrica; if digitaliza is a table of cost.
VICTIM: victim that did not suffer any injury in his body, but lost the structure of support of his basic needs, like house, half of subsistencia, etc.
STATEMENT OF DISASTER*: Proclamación official of a state of emergency after occurred a calamity on a large scale, with the purpose to activate the measures tendientes to reduce the impact of the disaster.
CIVIL DEFENCE*: System of measures, usually executed by an agency of the government, for protect to the civil population in time of war, answer to disasters and warn and mitigate the consequences of or greater disaster in time of peace. The term civil Defence uses increasingly in these days.
DEFORESTACIÓN*: Cleaning or destruction of an area previously forestada.
ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION*: Modifications desfavorables of the ecological and environmental state like result of natural processes and/or human activities.
DEGRADATION OF THE EARTH*: progressive Deterioration of the quality or forms of the earth like result of natural phenomena or human activity.
DEPRESSION*: Region where the atmospheric pressure is relatively lower that the one of regions that surround it of same level.
DEPRESION TROPICAL: they form on the open seas and characterise by his winds with a lower speed to the 64 km/h, accompanied of torrential rains.
It SPILL OF HYDROCARBONS*: Pollution of an area of earth or water caused by hydrocarbons.
LANDSLIDE IN MINES Or SINKING OF GALLERIES: disaster that produces in subterranean excavations. When it occurs a subterranean sinking, gives off part of the rocky material that recubre the galleries, blocking them.
DISASTER: event that causes intense alterations in the people , the goods, the services and the environment, exceeding the capacity of answer of the community affected.
BIOLOGICAL DISASTER*: Disaster caused by the exhibition of living organisms to germs and toxic substances.
DISASTER OF THE AERIAL NAVIGATION: it comprises all the violent impacts of aircraft that transport passengers or load.
DISASTER OF THE MARITIME TRANSPORT: it refers to fuselages. These crafts can sink during a tempestad, explode, ignite, go in in collision with a shipping, crash against an iceberg or escollo, zozobrar or disappear without leaving trace.
DISASTER OF THE TERRESTRIAL TRANSPORT: it comprises the collisions or derailment of trains or other vehicles of transport of load or of passengers, so much in urban zones like rural.
It DOWNLOADS BEAK*: maximum Discharge for a hidrograma of grown die.
DESERTIFICATION: process whereby a zone that already is arid goes back barrener, less able to retain vegetation, until converting progressively in desert. The desertification is used to to be the cause of disasters on a long-term basis; these last have to register like consequences.
SLIDE OF ROCKS*: fast Movement, slope down, usually sudden, of a new segment that gives off of a mulch of rock on a surface bent or another already existent surface.
SLIDE OF TIERRA: movements to outside or slope down of materials that form slopes (natural rocks and earth). They are unchained by torrential rains, the erosion of the floors and tremors of earth, being able to produce also in zones covered by big quantities of snow (avalanchas).
MALNUTRITION*: Illness caused like result of an absence or deficiency in the diet of one or more essential nutrients; self-evident or detects by means of tests. The malnutrition can occur by an excess of unsuitable foods.
DESPRENDIMIENTO OF ROCKS*: Fall or movements that precipitate the separation of new segments, of a mulch of rocks of any size, of a wall or another very bent slope.
DHA-UNDRO: Department of Humanitarian Subjects (DHA), previously designated like the Office of the Coordinator of the United Nations for the Aid in Cases of Disaster (UNDRO).
DAM (without. PREY Or DAMS)*: Work of earth to retain the flow of water inside a specific area, along his course avoiding like this the floods been due to tides or waves.
DIRDN: Decenio International for the Reduction of the Natural Disasters, 1990-2000.
DIVISIONAL OF CUENCA*: Line or limit that separates the adjacent basins.
DNPAD: National direction for the Prevention and Attention of Disasters.
DOME*: Lava that is too viscous to flow lateralmente and therefore it forms domes on the orifice of eruption.
EXERCISE OF SIMULATION*: Exercise for taking of decisions and training in disasters inside a community loomed, with the end to represent situations of disaster to promote a more effective coordination of answer, by part of pertinent authorities and of the population.
ELEMENTS IN RISK*: Populations, buildings and civil activities, public services utilities and infrastructures, etc. exposed to a threat.
ELEMENTS NO STRUCTURAL*: Parts of a building that do not belong to the central structure (for example the sky raso, septum, etc) that bears the loads of the building.
THE BOY*: anomalous Warming of the water of the ocean to big distance of the coasts of south America because of the swing of a current of the Peaceful South, usually accompanied by strong rains in the coastal region of Peru and Chile, and the reduction of rain in Africa equatorial and Australia.
EMERGENCY: situation that appears when, in the combination of factors known, arises a phenomenon or event that did not expect , eventual, unexpected and unpleasant for causing damages or alterations in the people, the goods, the services or the environment, without exceeding the capacity of answer of the community affected.
SEISMIC SWARM*: Series of lower movements of earth (any of which can be identified like main) that occur inside a time and area limited.
EPICENTRE*: Point in the surface of the earth, directly on of the place of origin (for example focus or hipocentro) of the earthquake.
EPIDEMIC: unusual increase or apparition of a significant number of cases of an illness infecciosa that self-evident with a greater frequency to which usually presents in this region or population. The epidemics can also attack to the animals, unchaining economic disasters in the regions affected.
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DISASTERS*: medical Discipline that studies the influence of the factors, such as the lifestyle, biological constitution or other determinantes personal or social in the incidence, as well as the distribution of illnesses that have relation with the disaster.
TEAM OF DISASTER*: Groups multidisciplinarios and multisectorial of qualified people to evaluate a disaster and carry the necessary aid.
TEAM OF INSPECTION OF THE AREA OF DISASTER (DAST)*: Group that displaces to the area after the disaster, to analyse the magnitude of the damage done to the population and properties. It recommends also types of appropriate answer.
EROSION*: Loss or disintegration of floor and rocks like result of the action of the water, ice or wind.
VOLCANIC ERUPTION: Download of fragments, in the air or in the water, of lava and gases through the crater of a volcano or of the walls of the volcanic building.
SCALE OF BEAUFORT*: Scale of strength of the wind, measure from 0 (clama), until 12 (wind with strength of hurricane).
SCALE OF FUJITA-PEARSON*: Scale of three digits for tornados invented by Fujita (scale F) and Pearson (scale PP), to indicate the intensity of the tornado (0-5), long of the path (0-5) and width of the path (0-7).
SCALE OF MERCALLI*: See “intensity”.
SCALE OF MM*: See “intensity”.
SCALE OF MSK*: See “intensity”.
SCALE OF RICHTER* (MAGNITUDE): Indice of seismic energy freed by an earthquake (in contrast with intensity, that describes his effects in a particular place). Invented by C. F. Richter in 1935 in terms of movement that will be measured in some types of seismographs located to 100 Km of the epicentre of the earthquake. At present they use several “scales of magnitude” in function of the amplitude of the different types of seismic waves and of the length of the signal of seismic movement.
STABILISATION OF SLIDES OF TIERRA*: Measures to warn the slide of earth.
STATE OF THE FLOOR*: Conditions of the earth (content of humidity, disgregación, density, etc.) that they can mitigate or intensify the agents of disaster, such like drought, floods, or seismic movements.
ESTIMATE*: Study of a real or potential disaster, to estimate the damages expected and do recommendations to warn, prepared and answer.
EVACUATION: period during which the community answers to the inminencia of the disaster, relocating provisionally in a safe zone.
EVALUATION*: Assessment after the disaster of all the appearances of the disaster and his effects.
EVAPOTRANSPIRACIÓN*: Loss combined of water of an area, because of the evaporation of the water of the floor and the transpiration of the plants.
EVENTO WITH PERIOD OF RETURN OF N YEARS (see also period of return)*: Magnitude of an evento, whose period of return average is of N years.
EXPLOSION IN A MINE: explosion that produces when the methane or the dust of hulla (grisú) react to the contact with the air.
NUCLEAR Or THERMONUCLEAR EXPLOSION: it includes an accidental leakage of radiation, that occurs in nuclear installations civilians, and that exceed the levels of security established internationally.
CHEMICAL EXPLOSION: violent destruction caused by the explosion of matters fuels, almost always of chemical nature.
It FAILS*: flat Fracture or slightly curve in the upper layers of the earth, on which occurs the trip.
PHASES OF DISASTER*: previous and back Period of the disaster, subdivididos in particular actions.
FLOW OF ASH*: Flows piroclásticos that include a solid phase composed largely of ashes and a liquid phase.
FLOW OF LAVA*: Rocks melted that flow slope under a hole of relief (crater) of a volcano, generally moving from some metres until some tens of kilometres by hour.
FLOW OF SLIME*: I Move mountain under fine terrestrial material mixed with water.
FLOWS PIROCLÁSTICOS (avalanchas incandescentes): formed by cool magma that they can reach temperatures of until 1.200 degrees. The flow piroclástico composes of fragments of rock from the eruption, that suspended in a cloud of gases and materials in fast expansion, precipitate slope down to speeds of until several cientos of kilometres by hour, reaching usually distances of 10 km, and in rare occasions, until 40 km from the place of the event. This class of eruptions is the most dangerous.
FLOW OF TIERRA: massive movement characterised by the transfer costs down of earth and worn rock, parallel to the slide of earth.
FOCUS (SEISMIC)*: Point under the surface of the earth, that breaks and gives start to the earthquake, and from where spread the ondulaciones.
FRONT (ATMOSPHERIC)*: 1.-The interface or zone of transition between masses of air of different physical properties (temperature, humidity).
2.-Line of intersection in the surface, that separates two masses of air generally with the earth.
STRENGTH OF THE WIND*: Number in a scale of Beaufort corresponding to the effects produced by winds inside a range of speed.
GESTIÓN: group of rules, procedures and operative methods to llevar with efficiency and efficiency the action scheduled.
GLASGOW (SCALE OF THE COMA OF...): Contrived with the end to evaluate the state of consciousness of the patients with trauma skull encefálico. The scale produces objective information and is easy to use so much by medical personnel like paramédico, by which generalised his application to all patient neurológico. The scale evaluates three for metres: ocular opening, verbal answer and answer motora with a maximum puntaje of 15 and a minimum of 3.
HIT OF SEA (MAREMOTO)*: Elevation of the level of the sea that gives like result the flood of areas along the coast. These phenomena are caused by the movement of marine and oceanic currents, winds and greater storms.
HAILSTORM: impact of hail, precipitation of particles of ice more usually associated to the tempestades electrical.
FAMINE: critical reduction of foods that affects to big quantity of people. This is because of climatic reasons, environmental, economic and political, between others.
DO-MAT: dangerous materials, of the English hazardous materials.
HEMOTÓRAX: Accumulation of blood in the pleural space, frequently owing to a trauma of thorax, potentially mortal by respiratory restriction and shock.
HF: System HF (High Frequencies); this system works in the frequency of 3 Mhz until 30 Mhz.
HIDROGRAMA*: Chart that shows the variation in the time of some hydrological information such as: level of water, discharge, load of sediments, etc.
HOT STICK: Element used by the groups of research and rescue like detector of alternating current in the places in which they suspect fields energizados.
HUMIDITY OF THE FLOOR*: Content of water in the portion of earth that is above the phreatic level, including the steam of present water in the pores of the floor; in some cases refers strictly to the humidity inside the zone of the roots of the plants.
SINKING (SUBSIDENCIA)*: I Collapse of a considerable surface of earth, because of the remoción of liquid or inferior layer of earth, or remoción of a soluble material by means of water.
HURRICANE: they are gigantic atmospheric eddies, with winds of more than 117 km/h; they originate in the zones of tropical calm from where displace in paths often wayward to upper latitudes. In the Atlantic western and the Peaceful oriental designates them like this to the ciclones.
STARVATION*: State that results of the privación extreme of food, or of the drastic reduction in the consumption of nutrients during long periods of time, and that drive to severe physiological differences, functional, of behaviour and morphological.
ICS: Incident Command System, is an originally developed system in California (Or.S.A.) to handle evento with two or more victims, initially to organise a lot of groups of firemen in big and forest fires and, later, modified and applied through the United States in a variety of evento.
IMPACT: the effects and the dimension of a disaster.
FIRE: the fire is almost always ocasionado by the human activity, but occasionally because of natural phenomena.
FOREST FIRE: fire in a forest or zone of thickets or pastizales, that covers extensive areas. It can initiate by natural causes such like volcanic eruptions or rays, or be caused by pyromaniacs, smokers neglected, fogatas or burn.
INDEX OF THREAT OF VIOLENT TIME-SWEAT INDEX*: Index to predict storms and tornados.
INDEX OF EXPLOSION*: Percentage of matter piroclástica in regard to the whole of matter issued during a volcanic eruption.
INDEX OF PALMER*: mathematical Representation of the conditions of drought.
INDICE OF PRECIPITATION ANTECEDENT (PREVIOUS HUMIDITY OF THE FLOOR)*: Sum ponderada of the quantities of daily precipitation in the past, used like index of humidity of the floor.
INDEX OF DROUGHTS*: Value computed that it relates with some of the efects accumulated of a prolonged and abnormal deficiency of humidity.
INFESTACIÓN BY INSECTS Or ANIMAL: invasion and development of insects or parasites that affect to people, animal, harvests and material.
INTENSITY (MACROSÍSMICA)*: Scale of consequences of an earthquake in a place in particular, measure of agreement to the effects on the people, structures and materials of earth. The scales of intensity more commonly used are: the one of Mercalli modified (MM) and the one of Medvedev, Sponheuer and Karnik (MSK), both have 12 degrees.
INTENSITY OF PRECIPITATION (RAIN)*: Quantity of precipitation collected by unit of time.
INTENSITY OF THE EARTHQUAKE*: See “intensity”.
INSARAG: Of the English, does reference to a group international adviser for actions of research and rescue. IN = international, SAR = search and rescue, To = advisory, G = group.
INSUFFICIENCY OF ENERGY: total or partial interruption of the supply of electrical energy during a long period, that causes considerable damages to the services and the normal means of life.
FLOOD, GROWN Or AVENUE: significant increase of the level of water of a course of water, lake reserves or coastal region. The grown is a hurtful flood of the goods and terrains used by the man, that can classify in two types: fast and slow.
ISOBAR*: Line represented in a letter or map, that joins the points in the surface that have the same barometric pressure during a period of time given.
ISOHYET (ISOYETA)*: Line in a letter or map, that joins points that have the same quantity of precipitation for periods of equal times.
ISOSEISMIC*: Line that surrounds geographic points in which the intensity microsísmica observed is the same.
ISOTHERM*: Line drawn in a letter or map, that joins points of equal temperature of the air.
LAHAR: Slides of ash by the slopes of the volcanos.
LANGOSTA / STRUGGLES AGAINST THE LANGOSTA*: Use of technicians of surveillance and treatment to struggle against the plague of the langosta. See “infest”.
LEGISLATION OF DISASTER*: The group of laws and regulations that govern and designate responsibilities for the handle of disasters, and that concern to the varied phases of the disaster.
LESIONADO: Victim of the disaster that suffered a trauma, damage or illness in his body owing to the disaster.
LIQUEFACTION*: Loss of resistance to the tension of sharp of a saturated sandy terrain of water.
PLAIN OF FLOOD Or PLANICIE INUNDABLE*: Area adjacent to the river, formed by overflows repeated.
SOUR RAIN: rain that drags an excessive concentration of sour components of the atmosphere, that come from of contaminantes chemical such as composed of sulphide and nitrogen. When these deposit , increase the acidity of the floor and the water, causing damages to the ecological balance and the agriculture.
EXTREME RAIN (LIKELY MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION –possible-) (PMP)*: Quantity of precipitation that is the upper limit of a length given on a particular base.
LOGISTICS*: Rank of operational activities related with provisions, handle, transport and the distribution of materials; also applicable to the transport of people.
MAGMA*: Matter melted that includes liquid rock and gas under pressure, that can brotar of a desfoque of volcano.
MAGNITUDE*: See “scale of Richter.
BAD HARVEST*: abnormal Reduction of the harvest, of insufficient form as to fulfil with the economic and nutritious needs of the community.
I HANDLE OF DISASTERS*: The body of the politics and decisions adminstrativas and operational activities that belong to the different stages of the disaster in all his levels.
MAP OF THE TIME (MAP SINÓPTICO) (LETTER OF THE TIME) (LETTER SINÓPTICA)*: geographic Map in that they appear the meteorological data, analysed or foreseen for a moment die, to describe the atmospheric conditions to scale sinóptica.
SEA OF LEVY (tide of tempestad): sudden increase of the sea, like result of big winds and atmospheric pressures drops; some times called tides of storm, waves of storm, waves of tide (this ultima denomination designates the waves originated by the lunar or solar tides, to the equal that the ordinary tides. It is used to apply wrongly to the tsunamis). Generally it affects only coastal areas, but can include some distances earth inside.
TIDE OF TEMPESTAD*: sudden Increase of the sea, like result of big winds and atmospheric pressures drops; some times called tides of storm, waves of tide. Generally it affects distances earth inside.
MAREMOTO*: See “hit of sea”.
MATERIAL OF EXPULSION*: Material expelled of a volcano that includes big fragments (bombs), material that burns without flame (slag), small rocks (lapilli) and fine particles like the ash.
DANGEROUS MATERIALS*: Substance or material, declared dangerous by a competent authority, and able to cause a risk irrazonable to the health, security and properties.
MCI: of the English Multiple Casualty Incident, evento with multiple victims. Others designate them Mass Casualty Incident (victims in mass).
MEDICINE OF DISASTER*: The study and the collaboration applied to the different disciplines of the health to protect, prepare, give rehabilitation and give immediate answers to the problems of health that result of a disaster, in collaboration with other disciplines related with the handle global of disasters.
MEDICINE OF EMERGENCY*: The institutional system specialised together with the resources that need for suplir the unexpected medical needs.
MEASURES NO STRUCTURAL FOR THE CONTROL OF AVENUES*: System for the reduction of the effects of the grown using means no structural, for example planning of the use of the earth (zoning of the plain of flood), systems of alert anticipated, insurances of floods.
MEASURER OF PRECIPITATION*: general Term for any device that measures the quantity of precipitation, mainly a raingauge or a snowgauge.
METEORIZACIÓN*: Degradation and/or transformation of the rock because of mechanical processes, chemists and biological of the atmosphere.
MICROZONIFICACIÓN*: Subdivision of a region in areas where can expect similar effects caused by a same danger. The microzonificación is the cartography on a large scale (order of magnitude of 1/5000 to 1/10000) of a local seismic threat.
MITIGACIÓN: The purpose of the mitigación is the reduction of the vulnerability, that is to say the mitigation of the potential damages on the life and the goods.
MITIGACIÓN STRUCTURAL OF FLOOD*: structural Systems for the reduction of effects of overflows, using physical solutions; they include dams, dragados, etc.
MOLINETE*: Instrument to measure the speed of the water.
MONITORY (SURVEILLANCE)*: System that allows the observation, measurement and continuous evaluation of the progress of a process or phenomenon in sight, to take measures correctivas.
MONSOON*: Big rains and seasonal wind, mainly in the areas of the Ocean Indicate and the south of Asia whose direction varies of a station to another.
MOVEMENT OF DEMOLITIONS*: Flow of slime of big density loaded of heterogeneous material like rocks, trunks of trees, etc. See “flow of slime”.
MOVEMENT OF TIERRA*: seismic Vibration in a point in particular, registered by means of a seismograph or acelerógrafo, so that it can determine the characteristics of vibration of an earthquake or explosion.
WALL CORTAFUEGO*: Walls that serve like barriers against the fire.
WALL OF RETENTION*: structural Element that resists lateral strengths.
NASAR: Of the English, National Association of Groups of Research and Rescue (USA).
NEUMOTÓRAX: Accumulation of air in the pleural space, frequently owing to a trauma of thorax, potentially mortal by respiratory restriction and shock , especially if it is to tension can carry to the death of the patient in minutes.
LEVEL OF GROUNDWATER*: Level in which the floor and the porous rock begin to saturarse of water.
LEVEL OF ALARM OF GROWN*: Level of water that considers dangerous and in which they would have to initiate the warnings.
NUEE ARDENTE*: See “flow piroclástico”.
EYE (OF THE STORM)*: The centre calmed of a ciclón tropical.
WAVE OF HEAT: long period of time, with high superficial temperatures.
WAVE OF COLD: long period of time, with temperatures extremely low.
WAVE OF GROWN*: Increase of the discharge of a course of water of such magnitude that ocasione overflows in channels, rivers or reservoirs.
WAVE OF TIDE*: Rugged increase of the tide (caused by atmospheric activities) that moves quickly earth inside, from the mouth of the estuary.
OPS-WHO: Organisation Panamericana of the Health, Sanitary Office Panamericana; Regional Office of the World Health Organisation.
ORGANISATION NO GOVERNMENTAL (NGO)*: Non-profit organisations that act to local levels, national or international. Distinct of governmental organisations, do not have bows of statutes with a national government.
OSOCC: Of the English, does reference to the Centre Coordinator of Operations in the Place.
PACKET: System of transmission of data asincrónico, that is to say that allows the connection of 2 or more stations by means of protocols of transmission of information by packages like the AX25 and the TCP/IP.
PACTOR: Way of transmission of data by the system Telex Over Radius, can communicate to two stations at the same time at most in a frequency, synchronised, one acts like slave of which initiates the communication. PCR: Cardiac and Respiratory unemployment.
SECONDARY DANGERS*: Dangers that are the result of another danger or disaster. For example, fires or slides that follow to an earthquake, epidemics after famines, shortage of food after floods.
PERIOD OF RETURN*: See “half period of return”.
PERIOD OF DROUGHT (DRY PERIOD)*: Period of time abnormally dry. The use of this term has to leave for the case of conditions less severe that the ones of droughts.
HALF PERIOD OF RETURN*: Time average between the occurrences of a threat in particular.
PERMAFROST*: Layer of floor or rock in which the temperature has kept under 0 degrees centígrados at least some years.
PEOPLE DISPLACED: they receive this calificativo especially the people desarraigadas that remain in the territory of his own country.
TROPICAL PERTURBATION*: See “ciclón tropical”.
PHTLS: Course of Vital Support PreHospitalario in Trauma, sponsored by the National Association of Technicians in Medical Emergencies of USA (NAEMT), has developed in cooperation with the Committee of Trauma of the American School of Surgeons.
PLATFORM OF COLLECTED OF DATA (DCP)*: Eases of automatic measurement with transmitter of radius to cater contact and transmission of data via satellite.
RAINGAUGE*: See “measurer of precipitation”.
PMU: Place of Control Unified.
POPULATION DISPLACED: people that by different reasons or circumstances saw forced to leave his houses. They can live or no in his country of origin but jurídicamente, no considers them taken refuge. The cause of the desarraigo forzoso can have been natural disasters, industrial disasters, conflicts or international riots. There are three classes of movements in big scale: the exodus, the expulsion and the return. The people displaced classifies them according to the reasons that have caused his trip.
POPULATION IN RISK*: A very clear-cut population whose lives, properties and sources of work find loomed by dangers given. It uses like a denominator.
PÓLDER*: Area Artificial, in his low majority, protected of the water that surrounds it and inside which can control the phreatic level.
POLITICS OF WATERS*: Legislations, legal interpretations, governmental decisions, rules and regulations of agencies and cultural answers , by means of which guide the actions concernientes to the quantity and quality of the water.
POLUCIÓN (POLLUTION)*: Degradation of one or more elements or appearances of the environment, because of industrial scraps, chemists or biological harmful, from wastes of products done by the man and by the evil handle of the natural and environmental resources.
POLUCIÓN ATMOSPHERIC*: Pollution of the atmosphere because of gases, solids and radiation like result of burns it of a natural and artificial fuel, of chemical and industrial processes, as well as of nuclear explosions.
RADIOACTIVE PRECIPITATION*: Tank of radioactive particles of the atmosphere, been due to:
2.-Explosions of nuclear bombs.
3.-radioactividad Induced and accidents of atomic reactors.
ZONAL PRECIPITATION (AREAL)*: half Precipitation that has fallen on a specific area.
PRECURSOR*: Tremor that does part of a series of tremors that precede to an earthquake, and that originate near of the focus of this. Phenomenon that indicates the likely occurrence of an earthquake or volcanic eruption.
PREDICTION*: Statement of the hour, the place and the magnitude expected of a future evento (for earthquakes and volcanic eruptions).
PREDICTION OF FLOODS*: Process to estimate the level, values of download, occurrence and length of the grown, especially of beak of cudal.
PREDICTION OF EARTHQUAKES*: See “prediction”.
HYDROLOGICAL PREDICTION*: Report of the hydrological conditions expected for a period of time specified.
PREDICTOR*: Meteorological or hydrological element or an index that compiles several elements that knows (many times of empirical form) that is highly correlacionado with the magnitude that wishes predict and that uses to predict it.
PREPARATION: it is headed to to structure the answer for the attention of the emergencies that inevitably can present, reinforcing like this the measures of prevention and mitigación of the consequences.
PREY*: Barrier through a river, provista of gates or other mechanisms of control to control the level of water of surface that finds waters up, to regulate the flow or to derive reservations of water inside a channel.
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE*: Pressure exerted by the atmosphere, like consequence of the strength of gravity.
PRESSURE OF THE WIND*: See “load of the wind”.
PREVENTION: it is equivalent to say that by means of the direct intervention of the danger can avoid his occurrence, that is to say prevent the primary cause of the disaster.
FORECAST: it is to determine the possible threats and the conditions of vunelabilidad of a community.
FIRST HELPS*: immediate but temporary Cares, given in the place, to the victims of an accident or of unforeseen illnesses to warn complications, reduce suffering and sustain the life until it obtain a competent service or a doctor.
PROBABILITY OF EXCEDENCIA*: Probability that an amagnitud given of an evento was equal or exceeded.
FOCAL DEPTH*: vertical Distance from the surface of the earth to the place of origin (hipocentro, focus) of an earthquake.
PROGNOSIS*: Report or estimated statistical that an evento occur en el futuro. This term uses with different meanings in different disciplines, the same that “prediction”.
MOMENTARY PROGNOSIS*: Description of the current time and forecast for a brief period (0-2 hours).
PROPAGATION OF THE WAVE OF GROWN (PROPAGATION IN STRETCH)*: Process to determine changes in the floods, by means of the study of overflows in channels, rivers or reservoirs.
PROTECTION OF ELEMENTS SITUATED IN ZONE INUNDABLE*: Technicians to warn the damage to the structure and content of buildings, caused by floods in an area with danger of floods.
RADAR*: Method radioeléctrico to determine from a sols station the direction and distance of an object.
RÁFAGA*: Brief and sudden increase of the wind speed concerning his half value.
RAT OF SEISMIC ACTIVITY*: half Number by unit of time of earthquakes with specific characteristics (for example magnitude 6), originated in one fails or area selected.
REASON HARVESTS-HUMIDITY*: Reason of precipitation and the evapotranspiración potential. Indice For the estimate of agricultural droughts.
RCCP (RCP): Cardiac reanimation, Cerebral and Pulmonary.
RECONSTRUCTION: it is the process of recovery to average and long term of the structures affected by the occurrence of a disaster by means of the repair of the physical damage suffered in the infrastructure; giving a process of reasentamiento of the community victim.
NETWORK OF FANS*: The international network of radiocommunication of fans, considered frequently a valuable contribution of the community to answer to the disaster.
REDUCTION: term that groups the concepts to warn the occurrence, mitigate the losses, prepare for the consequences and alert the presence.
REFUGEES: in accordance with the international legislation, people that have a very founded fear of persecution, by reasons of race, religion, nationality or belonging to a social group or of political opinion particular, resident in his majority out of the country of origin and unable to return or be protected by his country. It includes massive exoduses as a result of conflicts and natural disasters, out of the country of origin.
SHELTER*: Requests of physical protection for the victims of a disaster, that do not have the possibility of access to eases of normal room. They fulfil the immediate needs of post-disaster, by means of the use of carps. Can include other alternatives like the use of houses of polipropileno, geodesic domes and other similar types of temporary house.
REHABILITATION: it is an intermediate stage in which it continues with the activities of initial attention of the population, but in her reestablishes the operation of the vital lines, such as the energy, the water, the roads and the telecommunications and other basic services like the health and the supply of foods; previous to the definite reconstruction of the houses and the infrastructure of the community.
REINSTALACIÓN*: Necessary actions for the permanent installation of people affected by a disaster, to a different area to his previous place of house.
REMANSO*: Increase in the level of water of a river, because of the taponamiento natural or artificial of this.
REFERENCE: it understands like the sending of lesionados or elements of help diagnóstica by part of the units of attention to an institution of the sector health, or between hospitable centres, pay attention definite.
It RETORTS: small movement of earth that follows to the first and that originates near of the focus. The replies generally decrecen in intensity and quantity over time. The replies that follow immediately to the main movement have to consider part of the same event that constitutes the main earthquake.
It REPORT OF SITUATION*: Brief report that publishes and updates periodically and contains the details of the emergency, the general needs and the answer taken by all the donors to measure that know . You report them of situation are issued by UNDRO, ACNUR, CICR and LRCS.
REPORT INFORMATIVE*: it Report with the same content that the report of situation, but issued by an agency when the international assistance has not been requested of official way by the government.
It DAMS (BARRIER)*: Barrier built through a valley to retain water or create a reservoir.
REPTACIÓN OF THE FLOOR*: gradual and continuous Movement of the floor and loose material by a slope that can be soft, but that generally is empinada; also it calls him gateo superficial.
RESCUE: it consists in the application of technicians of stabilisation, remoción, penetration extraction of victims by disasters or accidents, that find trapped or aprisionados by structures, vehicles (aerial, terrestrial or aquatic), or lost in zones of jungle, nevados and náufragos or victims of floods, using for this special and suitable teams.
ANSWER: it is the stage that corresponds to the execution of the planned actions in the stage of preparation. In this phase gives the immediate reaction for the timely attention of the population affected.
RISK: the result to calculate the potential action of a threat (To), with the conditions of vulnerability (V) of a community or system. In conclusion: Risk = To * V.
SPLIT OF DAM: they result of the trip of the foundations of dams it caused by an earthquake, perforaciones oil in the inmediaciones or defective construction. The preys of earth are more exposed to derrumbarse if in case of excessive rains the reservoir arrives to desbordarse. The volume in excess escurre by the terraplenes, dragging little by little the materials and digging deep cracks. All the structure finishes for weakening until derrumba entirely, freeing súbitamente enormous volumes of water that arrasan with the places situated in the lowest terrains, causing a big number of dead persons and lesionados.
RESCUE (RESCUE)*: See “research and rescue”.
SANEAMIENTO*: The application of measures and technical headed to ensure and improve the general hygiene of the community, by means of the recolección, evacuation and disposal of liquid wastes and solids, to the equal that the measures to create some favourable environmental conditions for the health and the prevention of illnesses.
SAR: Of the groins, Research and Rescue.
SURE AGAINST DISASTERS*: Insurance policies sponsored by private entities or of the government for the protection against economic losses that result of a disaster.
SEICHE*: Swing in the surface of the water being confined and that initiates by atmospheric changes venues, currents or earthquakes.
SENSITISATION*: See “public consciousness”.
DROUGHT: Period of deficiency of humidity in the floor, of such form that there is not the water required for plants, animal and human needs. The droughts originate malnutrition, epidemics and trips of population.
MEDICAL SERVICES OF URGENCY (SMU)*: Group of resources and necessary personnel to loan medical cares out of the hospital to those people with need apremiante of this service.
SEISMICITY*: Distribution of earthquakes in space and time.
SEISMICITY INDUCED*: seismic Activity to consequence of human activities, such as: minería, big explosions or force big quantities of liquids inside the earth, for example fields of oil, tanks of wastes or reservoirs.
SEISMOGRAPH*: Instrument to register vibratory movements of earth.
SYSTEM OF GESTIÓN OF THE WATER (SYSTEM OF HANDLE OF THE WATER)*: Group of structures of engineering of waters and bodies of water related, that serve for one or more purposes and that handle like an alone unit.
SYSTEM OF SUBSIDENCIA VITAL*: Eases and public systems, that cater services of support of basic life, such as: water, energy, health, communications and transport.
WORLD-WIDE SYSTEM OF OBSERVATION (SMO)*: System coordinated of methods, technical and eases to do observations in a world-wide scale, under the diagrams of the World-wide Meteorological Surveillance (VMM).
SNPAD: National system for the Prevention and Attention of Disasters.
SOCORRO*: Assistance and/or intervention during or after a disaster to attain the preservation of the life and the basic needs of subsistencia. It can be of emergency or of prolonged length.
START (Simple Triage And Rapid Treatement): it is a system developed with the aim to standardise and facilitate the process of Triage for the personnel asistencial in the initial attention of an evento with multiple victims, bases his action in
The assessment of three systems: respiratory, circulatory and nervous central (state of consciousness); classifying to the lesionados in three levels in accordance with the severity of the injuries and the need of attention in: "secondary", "immediate" and "died / no recoverable". It is very useful especially if the place is unsure and requires a fast evacuation of all the victims.
TABLE OF COST*: See “curve of cost”.
TAG: Placed mark to the lesionados that indicates the priority of the attention, situated in a visible part of this. They can be cards or strips or of another type, which have to have the red colours, yellow, green, black and white.
TECTONICS OF PLATES*: The concept that the upper layers of the earth are done of several long and rigid plates, whose limit are fail.
TELEDETECTION*: The observation and/or the study of an area, object or phenomenon, from an aerial distance, usually using data collected by satellite.
TELEMETRÍA*: Use of devices of transmission of data from sensors in situ to a station receptor.
TREMOR*: Shake of the earth associated with a seism or explosion.
MAIN TREMOR*: The biggest of a sequence of earthquakes.
TEMPESTAD TROPICAL*: See “ciclón tropical”.
STORM OF CENCELLADA*: Intense training of ice on objects, by the congelamiento of rain or hail.
STORM: atmospheric alteration that comprises perturbations of the fields of pressure and of predominant wind, in scales that go of the tornados (1 km of diameter) to the ciclones extratropicales (2.000 to 3.000 km of diameter).
TEPHRA*: Group of material of volcanic origin except the lava.
TERRACES*: horizontal Courts or banks done along the mountain to reduce the erosion and improve the crop or llevar some another function of conservation.
EARTHQUAKE: sudden split of the upper layers of the Earth, that some times extends to the surface of this and produces vibration of the floor, that to be the sufficiently strong will cause the collapse of buildings and the destruction of lives and properties. The magnitude of the earthquakes measures by means of the scale of Richter and the intensity by means of the one of Mercalli.
EARTHQUAKE OF PROJECT*: Parameters of an earthquake selecting for the design of structures seism-resistant according to the reglamentación valid.
DYNAMIC TEST*: Analysis of answer of structures under loads that simulate to the imposed by natural threats.
TIME OF EXHIBITION*: The period of time that interests for the calculations of risks and seismic threats or design of structures. For the structures, the time of exhibition chooses usually in such a way that it was equal to the time of life of the design of the structure.
TIME OF REACTION*: Period of time body the announcement and the arrival of a dangerous evento, used for reagrupar the necessary resources for the operations of aid.
TYPHOON: in the Pacify western calls them like this to the ciclones.
UNSTABLE THORAX: injury with multiple fractures costales characterised by the stray of osseous continuity of a segment of thoracic wall that generates respiratory difficulty and is potentially mortal.
STORM OF SAND (STORM OF DUST): dust or sand raised vigorously to big heights by strong and turbulent winds.
STORM OF PROJECT*: Quantity of rain and his distribution in the time adopted in a basin given, and used to determine the grown of project.
STORM OF THUNDERS: big cloudiness of strata cumulus in that they develop centres located of electrical loads.
TROPICAL STORM: they form on the open seas and characterise by his extraordinarily destructive winds with a speed between 64 and 117 km/h, torrential rains, waves of storm on the high seas, intense swell in the seaboard, coastal floods, fluvial floods, lightnings and thunders.
TORNADO: tempestad of winds located and of big destructive violence that produces on firm earth. It characterises for presenting like a cloud in shape of column lengthened, of accelerated rotation, projected until the floor and that leaves to his step a trace of big destruction.
TPL: localizador Of people trapped, by his acronym in groins: Traped Person Locator. These can detect broadcasts of heat, vibrations and sound, of big utility in procedures of rescue in spaces confined.
TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY (Or COOPERATION)*: Information and equipment provisto by a country or area to another, together with the responsibility to train to people in the use of this information, technology and/or equipment.
TRAUMA*: Injury of any nature.
TRAUMA CRANEOENCEFALICO (TCE): injury that engages the vault craneana and his content: brain, cerebellum or cut cerebral, therefore the patient can present alterations of the state of consciousness and other demonstrations neurológicas.
TRAUMA RAQUIMEDULAR: injury that engages the vertebral column and the medula spinal, therefore the patient can present alterations neurológicas like loss of the sensitivity or of the movement of the extremities.
TRIAGE: I finish ancient French that it was used first to refer to the classification and attention of the injured in battle and that nowadays uses to define the process of priorización of the attention of the victims in accordance with the severity of his injuries.
TSUNAMIS And WAVES OF TIDE: series of big marine waves generated by the sudden trip of water of sea, caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or slides of underwater floor; able to propagate on long distances.
TURBONADA*: Atmospheric phenomenon characterised by a big rugged increase in the wind speed, with a length in the order of minutes, and a sudden reduction in the speed. Usually accompanied by rains and electrical storms.
UHF: System UHF (Ultra High Frequencies); this system comprises the frequencies between 300 Mhz and 3 Ghz. Has the same characteristics that the VHF, but differ in that his propagation is supremamente visual, or was that between the antennas of the receptor and transmitter does not have to have any obstacle.
URGENCY: alteration of the physical or mental integrity of a person caused by a trauma or by an illness of any etiology that generate a demand of immediate medical attention and effective, tendiente to diminish the risks of
Invalidity and death.
USAID-OFDA: United States Agency for International Development - Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance.
VHF: System VHF (Frequencies Very High); this system works in the frequency between 30 Mhz until 300 Mhz, the way of operation more frequent is the FM (modulation of frequency).
VICTIM: all those people lesionadas, victims or affected by the occurrence of the disaster.
HARD WIND*: Wind with a speed between 34 and 40 knots (strength of wind 8 in the scale of Beaufort).
WORLD-WIDE METEOROLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE (VMM)*: world-wide System coordinated and in course of evolution integrated by installations and meteorological services provided by the Members of the OMM to end to ensure that all the Members obtain the necessary meteorological information for the operative activities and the investigation. The paramount elements of the VMM are: the World-wide System of Observation; the World-wide System of Process of Data and the World-wide System of Telecommunication.
HOUSE DESTROYED: contraction with severe damage, the structural elements are very dilapidated and dislocados with a significant number of this destroyed, presents partial ruins or totally. The edificaciones are very unsure and present danger of collapse imminent or landslide, is necessary to protect the streets and the neighbouring buildings or demolerla in shape urgent. His access has to be totally forbidden.
HOUSE HABITABLE: construction without visible damage or light damage (fissures in the revoke of walls and of ceiling), does not present reduction in his capacity sismorresistente and is not dangerous for the people, can be used immediately or afterwards of his repair (retouchings without his unemployment).
HOUSE NO HABITABLE: construction with moderate or strong damage (big fissures in structural elements of concrete reinforced), has very diminished his capacity sismorresistente. The access to the same has to be controlled and can not use before being reinforced and repaired.
TEMPORARY HOUSE*: See “shelter”.
VOLAG*: See “voluntary agencies”.
VOLCANO*: Mountain formed by local accumulation of volcanic material around an abertura.
VULNERABILITY: the internal factor of an exposed community (or of an exposed system) to a threat, resulted of his intrinsic conditions to be affected and inability bear the evento or recover of his effects.
ARID ZONE*: Area in that the resources hídricos so many undergrounds as of rain, are insufficient to swing the quantity of water that loses by evaporation.
ZONE OF SPLIT*: In seismology, area of a split of fail, corresponding to a sequence of particular earthquake. In case of slide of earth, the zone of court or of origin of a mass of terrain in movement.
SEISMIC ZONE*: Area inside which are similar the requests of design, for big movements and of structures.
ZONING*: Generally it indicates the subdivision of a geographic area, country, region, etc. In sectors homogéneos regarding some criteria, as for example, the intensity of the threat, the degree of risk, requirements in matter of protection against a threat given.
ZONING OF THE PLAINS OF FLOOD*: Plane that defines the main zones of areas with potential floods, usually accompanied by recommendations or restrictions tendientes to warn damages by floods.
ZOONOSIS*: Any illness of animals that can be transmitted to the man (for example the anger).
*These definitions proceed of the multilingual Glossary of terms suited internationally relative to the Gestión of Disasters. Department of Humanitarian Subjects of United Nations. DHA-Geneva, December 1992.
ADMINISTRACION And REDUCCION
BITRAN, D. (1996): Impact Economico of the Desatres Natural in the Infrastructure of Health, CEPAL Distribution. Limited.
COLOMBIAN RED CROSS (1992): System of Preparativos for Disasters, Series 3000. Version 3.1.
INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION DE LA CRUZ RED And OF THE HALF RED MOON: World-wide Report On Disasters, 1993 - 1996.
MATUS, C. (1987): Goodbye, Gentleman President. Publisher Poimare S.A.
MINISTRY OF HEALTH (1994): Hospitable Plan of Emergencies, Document Number 1, 1991. OPS - WHO: To a Safer World In front of the Natural Disasters.
PRESIDENCY OF THE REPUBLIC: Decree 919 of 1989.
USAID-OFDA (1992): Administration for Disasters 1, Material of Reference.
ZEBALLOS, J. (1993): Effects of the natural disasters in the infrastructure of health. OPS-WHO, Bowl Of Sanit Panam 115(5).
AMERICAN COLLLEGE OF SURGEONS (1994): Advanced Trauma Life Suport, ATLS®. 5to ed.
AMERICAN HEART ASOCIATION (1990): Textbook of Advanced Cardiac Life Suport. 2to ed.
AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION (1994): Diagnosis and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, DSM-IV ®, 4to. ed.
AMERICAN NETWORK CROSS (1993): Emeregency Response. Mosby Lifeline - Yearbook Inc.
BONNIE, L., JACOB, D. (1994): Post-traumatic stress disorder in victims of disasters. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 17 No. 2: 301-309, June.
CRITICAL CARE CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (1991): Disaster Management, April.
COLOMBIAN RED CROSS (1995): Manual of Research and Rescue, Medical Publisher Panamericana.
COLOMBIAN RED CROSS (1992): System of Preparativos for Disasters, Series 3000. Version 3.1.
ECUADORIAN RED CROSS (1995): System of Preparation for Disasters - Series 3000.
ECHAVARRIA, H., FERRADA, R., KESTENBERG, To. (1993): surgical Urgency. Publisher XYZ Cali.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LEGAL MEDICINE And FORENSIC SCIENCES (1995): I Handle of Corpses in Disasters in Mass.
METROSALUD (1995): The sector health in prevention and attention of disasters, 1994. OPS-WHO: Establishing to Mass Casualty Management System.
SHOEMAKER, W. (1994): Textbook of Critical Care. W. B. Saunders Company.
SUPER G (Ed.) (1984): S.T.To.R.T. Instructor´s Manual.
RECUPERACION And DEVELOPMENT
COLOMBIAN RED CROSS (1992): System of Preparativos for Disasters, Series 3000. Version 3.1.
FLOREZ, J. (1989): Technical Norms in Surveillance Epidemiológica for Situations of Disaster, University of Antioquia.
MOON, J. (1994): The Social Networks: a perspective for his analysis. National university of Colombia.
OPS-WHO (1992): Project of Handle of Supplies after the Disasters in Latin America and the GREAT Caribbean.
PRIAC (1996to): I Project Plan of Participatory Development Corregimiento of Santa Leticia, Municipality of Puracé, Cauca. National university of Colombia, March.
- (1996b): Workshops Network of Services of Health of City Bolívar. National university of Colombia.
SEAMAN, J. (1989): Epidemiológia of Natural Disasters. Ed. Harla S.A.
USAID-OFDA (1993): Evaluation of Damages and Analysis of Needs.
WESTERN, K.: Surveillance Epidemiológica Subsequently to the Natural Disasters.
OPS (1982), Scientific Publication 420.
Universidad de Alicante
Carretera de San Vicente del Raspeig s/n
03690 San Vicente del Raspeig
Tel: (+34) 96 590 3400Fax: (+34) 96 590 3464