The National Geographic Institute has published information very useful that shows gráficamente and of form resumida that do before, during and despues of an earthquake.
Live an earthquake can be one of the most terrible experiences that a person can have. Clásicamente The floor has been ours reference, what never goes to fail under our feet. ¿What can think when it agitates like a weathercock in front of the wind? This event does that a lot of people leave carry by the panic and act without repairing mínimamente in the consequences.
In the current state of knowledge is impossible to predict the occurrence of an earthquake in a determinate place and date. However, although this could do, of little serves us if we only have some hours or with luck some days to react. In this supposition with big security will save our lives, but if before we have not taken some minimum measures will be able to lose our home or be long abandoned times to our luck, with scarce means to survive.
It is thus that the best medicine nowadays was the prevention and the preparation to act properly the day that occur the earthquake. In both cases is necessary to know the phenomena that unchain and the situations, sometimes unexpected, that create like consequence of the occurrence of an earthquake.
na Time that know the main effects that causes an earthquake are in conditions to take a series of measures conducentes to diminish his damages in our house or to warn the possible lacks and difficulties that can us ocasionar these damages in the first days after the earthquake.
Can begin identifying the possible situations of danger in the places where typically develops our life: home, in the work, in the school, in the supermarket, in the street, etc.
Home : it imagine which events can be unchained by an earthquake and treat to avoid them. For this can go room by room and treat of:
It is convenient besides that:
Ensure have manually, in safe places and of easy access:
In the work: it proceed of similar form to his house, identifying those objects that can go out sacked during the shake. They organise a plan of emergency and evacuation of the office.
In the school: it ask to the professors on the plans of emergency of the school. ¿Cual Is his responsibility and his paper in case of emergency? Ensure that it teachs to the students (his children) what do when it occur a seism.
An earthquake can last from some seconds until something more than a minute. If it is big first will notice a moderate perturbation, the waves P, but afterwards the floor will vibrate violentamente and possibly will lose the balance. It is also likely that can not move: numerous objects that fall, the windows and doors that open and close violentamente or his own fear can prevent him advance.
Independently of where find , procure to keep the calm and do not leave dominate by the fear. With all probability his first reaction will be of surprise or of confusion. To continuation will give account that treats of an earthquake. In no case and circumstance shout ¡is an earthquake! , that can feed the fear of others. Better shout ¡To covered! That it can help to that somebody save his life situating in a safe place.
His answer will depend on where find when it occur the earthquake. We consider to continuation the most likely circumstances:
Inside a building:
Home: it Follow the previous recommendations but besides:
In a public building (supermarket, cinema, library, etc):
If it finds in a vehicle driving:
If it finds in the street:
na Time that has finished the vibration, his answer goes to vary depending on where find and of the damages ocasionados. As in the previous cases go to consider several possibilities.
If it is in the school , follow the plan of emergency established in the same.
If in it finds in a vehicle , light the radio and procure to go back to his house with big caution, avoiding routes that cross numerous bridges. In no case it go back home if it lives under a prey or near of the beach.
If it is in a ship and the earthquake has been violent, possibly form a maremoto. If it was it was and moved away of the port, direct immediately to open sea, there the waves of maremoto will have a lot of lower height because of the greater depth of the mar. If by the contrary finds in the port, go down of the ship and move away immediately of the coast. In no case it go to the beach to see come the possible maremoto.
The main cause of damages ocasionados by the earthquakes is the own shake. Said shake causes the fall of numerous objects and the collapse of buildings. The collapse of buildings causes that in the best of the cases his inhabitants remain trapped between the demolitions, being frequent that perish by aplastamiento. On the other hand the fall of objects can cause numerous wounds, arriving even to the death if it treats of objects very heavy (pieces of furniture, heavy lamps, false ceilings, etc.) or sharp (fragments of glasses of windows).
Other damages that causes the earthquake affect to the terrain:
As well as:
All these phenomena can be very destructive if they affect to the terrain on which assent our cities or the necessary infrastructures for the normal development of our life (hospitals, firemen, tanks of supply of water, fuel, electrical head offices, etc.).
A very important appearance to have present is that after an earthquake, especially if this has been destructive, is very likely that interrupt the supply of light, water and telephone. This can force us to have to live during a period of several days in some totally unexpected conditions for us, without frigorífico where store the foods, without water or light to cook them.
Another phenomenon that is used to to accompany to a lot of earthquakes, and that sometimes has caused more damages that the own shake, is the fire. Like consequence of the vibration can break the driving of the gas of the kitchen; a spark of a wire broken or the innocent phosphorus that light to see better in the darkness can unchain a fire that arrase our house or even our neighbourhood. The fault of supply of water can besides prevent that it can turn off this fire.
Other damages or situations that can cause an earthquake are:
Fault of zones of received. Exhibition to the inclemencias of the time.
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