||SELECCIÓN DE ARTÍCULOS|
|Malik, S., & Courtney, K. (2011). Higher education and women’s empowerment in Pakistan. Gender and Education, 23(1), 29-45.
||This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded. Subsequently, semi%u2010structured interviews were held with 10 faculty members and 10 students. Respondents highlighted economic independence and an increased standing within family and society as the main benefits of higher education participation. A major finding is that participation in higher education enables women to impact on a number of discriminatory practices simultaneously and thereby effect change for the better. The main recommendation is that future educational strategies be developed with the aim of further promoting gender equality in all areas of education in Pakistan, but particularly with the aim of increasing female students’ participation in higher education.|
|Moss, D., & Richter, I. (2011). Changing times of feminism and higher education: from community to employability. Gender and Education, 23(2), 137-151.||
This article discusses the creation of space and time for feminist approaches in higher education in the context of shifting community and employment relations and the restructuring of higher education space%u2010time. It draws on the reflections of three feminist academics concerning aspects of their work biographies in two very different higher education settings. It explores the shift from working in an academic department concerned with community studies to one concerned with education and related employment. The article focuses on the attempt to sustain feminist practices through these changing times and settings and is informed by the work on time and space by Barbara Adam, Henri Lefebvre and Doreen Massey.
|Maher, F.A., & Thompson, M.K. (2011). Long%u2010term transformations: excavating privilege and diversity in the academy. Gender and Education, 23(3), 281-297.||
The article presents a theoretical framework, ‘institutional phase theory’, that charts the process by which higher education faculties in the USA were broadened by race, gender, and to a certain extent class over the past 40 years. Drawing upon institutional ethnographies of three very different universities – a top%u2010ranked private university, a comprehensive urban university, and a top%u2010ranked public university, the authors provide examples from the third, the University of Michigan. By taking a historical and institutional approach, the authors chart the movement from accepting ‘exceptional’ women and faculty of colour on male terms to measurable changes in overly rigid structures and institution%u2010wide policies; expanded visions and boundaries in traditional disciplines; interdisciplinarity as a mark of the university; and transformed scholarly research in selected disciplines.
|O’Connor, P., & White, K. (2011). Similarities and differences in collegiality/managerialism in Irish and Australian universities. Gender and Education, 23(7), 903-919.||
In the collegial model the basis for appointment to senior management in the collegial model is nomination by a community of scholars, whereas it is by line management in the managerial one. This article focuses on the basis of appointments in universities and the gendering of such structures. Data are drawn from qualitative interviews with both men and women senior manager-academics at Dean level and above in Ireland and Australia (N = 44). In both countries the power of the President/Vice-Chancellor (VC) was very much as a Chief Executive Officer in the managerialist model, rather than the ‘primus inter pares’ of the collegial model. Moreover, Presidents/VCs controlled the appointments of Vice-Presidents/Deputy VCs and Deans and were seen as being able to affect the gender profile of senior management. However, in the Australian system (in contrast to the Irish one) there was no ambivalence about the VC actively rectifying gender inequalities in management. In a context where hybrid forms of management are emerging, this article questions the relevance of collegial/managerialist models in understanding the gendering of universities.
|Selepè, M., Grobler, C., Dicks, E., & Oldewage-Theron, W. (2012).The W(h)ine Club: women finding joy in academic work. Gender and Education, 24(1), 73-82.||
The W(h)ine Club is a multidisciplinary women's research team which has been working together for the past 10 years. The idea for this Viewpoint piece grew as we participated in a Women in Research programme. The aim of the programme was to improve academic publications among women. A group of us in the programme found ourselves repeatedly referring to a time when we had worked together in a research project and the absolute joy we had experienced working together. We decided to write this reflection as the story of the W(h)ine Club, a space in which we complained, drank lots of wine, laughed and researched. All at the same time! What we realised was that women academics working together was a wonderful way to do research. Sharing our joys and sadness was often the glue that kept the team together and we learnt about research without realising it. In this Viewpoint we show that learning to research can be fun and that the bonds built in this process are powerful and validating.
Hirshfield , L.E., & Joseph, T.D. (2012). ‘We need a woman, we need a black woman’: gender, race, and identity taxation in the academy. Gender and Education, 24(2), 213-227.
|In 1994, Amado Padilla used the phrase ‘cultural taxation’ to describe the extra burden of service responsibilities placed upon minority faculty members because of their racial or ethnic background. In this paper, we expand upon Padilla's work and introduce the concept of ‘identity taxation’ to encompass how other marginalised social identities (such as gender, race and gender, and sexual orientation) may result in additional non-academic service commitments for certain faculty. Using qualitative interviews with faculty members at a large, public university in the Midwest, we examine identity taxation involving gender and the intersection of gender and race to demonstrate how women faculty (in general) and women of colour (specifically) feel their gender and racial group memberships influence their experiences in academia.
|Acker, S. (2012). Chairing and caring: gendered dimensions of leadership in academe. Gender and Education, 24(4), 411-428.
||This article uses three frames of analysis, each with gendered implications, to interpret the author's narrative of experience as a department chair (head of department) in a Canadian university from 1999 to 2002. The narrative is based not only on memory but on transcripts of interviews conducted with the author at various points during her term as chair. The three frames are: (1) learning leadership; (2) surviving organisations; and (3) performing leadership. The methodology is an unusual one, a mix of personal narrative with theory and literature, an approach that demonstrates the relative merits of different theoretical perspectives when applied to an account of experience as well as the difficulty of settling on one ‘true’ analysis. Throughout the discussion, a ‘critical incident’ is repeated several times in slightly varied ways, in order to illustrate how different analytical frames can lead to different interpretations. The conclusion considers the implications of the analysis for understanding the gendered experience of academic leadership.
|Rabe, M., & Rugunanan, P. (2012). Exploring gender and race amongst female sociologists exiting academia in South Africa. Gender and Education, 24(5), 553-566.
||This article explores issues of gender and race in the academic careers of female sociologists in South Africa by focusing on selected women who left academic departments in higher education institutions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants who left various Sociology departments at different times. It was found that young black female academics dwelled on issues of race in their careers, but paid scant attention to gender. Older white female academics, especially those who had been in senior positions, focused on gender issues, with only brief comments on racial issues. It is argued that racial challenges overshadow gender challenges for black female academics in South Africa and that gender discrimination is only experienced once women reach more senior academic positions. A minority status in academic departments contributes to experiences of racial or gender discrimination, although demographic changes within departments do not necessarily lead to the eradication thereof.
|Morley, L. (2012). The rules of the game: women and the leaderist turn in higher education. Gender and Education, 25(1), 116-131.
||This paper engages with Diana Leonard's writing on how gender is constituted in the academy. It offers an international review of feminist knowledge on how gender and power interact with leadership in higher education. It interrogates the ‘leaderist turn’ or how leadership has developed into a popular descriptor and a dominant social and organisational technology in academia. It considers some of the explanatory frameworks that have been marshalled to analyse women's leadership aspirations and absences. In doing so, it attempts to unmask the ‘rules of the game’ that lurk beneath the surface rationality of academic meritocracy. It also poses questions about the relentless misrecognition of women's leadership capacities and suggests the need for an expanded lexicon of leadership with which to move into the university of the future.
|Leathwood, C. (2013). Re/presenting intellectual subjectivity: gender and visual imagery in the field of higher education. Gender and Education, 25(2), 133-154.
||Visual images of students and academics in the UK have traditionally featured men, reflecting the historical predominance of men in these positions. When women were represented, sexist imagery and traditional constructions of femininity were not uncommon. This article explores the ways in which students and academics are constructed in a selection of visual representations in two contemporary UK sources: in two videos aimed at potential students and in the Times Higher Education, a magazine for higher education professionals. Following a discussion of dominant constructions of intellectual subjectivity, I draw upon a feminist post-structuralist approach in the analysis of these visual images. Although women are now entering universities in greater numbers than ever before, I suggest that this visual iconography continues to inscribe culturally dominant constructions of femininity and masculinity, reaffirms a gender binary and reconstructs the serious intellectual subject as a masculine one.
|Tamim, T. (2013). Higher education, languages, and the persistence of inequitable structures for working-class women in Pakistan. Gender and Education, 25(2), 155-169.
||This paper is based on the findings of a 3-year, qualitative study funded by the Research Consortium on Educational Outcomes for Poverty. It uses Sen's [1985. Well-being agency and freedom. Journal of Philosophy 82, no. 4: 169–221] capability approach and Bourdieu's [1991. Language and symbolic power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press] critical theory to argue that access participation and the empowering outcomes of higher education are contingent on learners' familiarity with the languages used. If there is a discrepancy between the languages used in higher education and the linguistic capital that learners have acquired during schooling without any appropriate measures to fill the gap, participation is bound to be limited. Findings of this qualitative multiple case study involving eight participants entering higher education from government and private schools in Pakistan reveal that working-class women remain the most marginalised and fail to achieve valued goals within higher education in terms of knowledge construction, participation, and a more empowered sense of identity. This eventually culminates in their delayed elimination from higher education.
|Kreitz-Sandberg, S. (2013). Gender inclusion and horizontal gender segregation: stakeholders' strategies and dilemmas in Swedish teachers' education. Gender and Education, 25(4), 444-465.||This paper contributes to our knowledge of teacher educators' strategies for, and dilemmas with, working with gender inclusion in teachers' education. It illustrates how gender is constructed and reconstructed in teachers' education. The study revealed that teachers' education is not only – as earlier described – a highly feminised field, it is also a discipline that is permeated by horizontal and vertical segregation typical of higher education. The study analyses how university teacher educators experience and handle consequences of this horizontal segregation, building on interviews with subject representatives at a Swedish university. The results exemplify how university teachers reflect on gender policies and their own roles when working with teacher students. Heteronormative patterns also become visible in strategies meant to facilitate gender equality and desegregation. The author argues for the need to include university teachers' perspectives in future strategies for developing gender inclusion in university education.|
|Savigny, H. (2014). Women, know your limits: cultural sexism in academia. Gender and Education, 26(7), 794-809.||Despite the considerable advances of the feminist movement across Western societies, in Universities women are less likely to be promoted, or paid as much as their male colleagues, or even get jobs in the first place. One way in which we can start to reflect on why this might be the case is through hearing the experiences of women academics themselves. Using feminist methodology, this article attempts to unpack and explore just some examples of ‘cultural sexism’ which characterises the working lives of many women in British academia. This article uses qualitative methods to describe and make sense of some of those experiences. In so doing, the argument is made that the activity of academia is profoundly gendered and this explicit acknowledgement may contribute to our understanding of the under-representation of women in senior positions.|
|Hirshfield, L. E. (2014). ‘She's not good with crying’: the effect of gender expectations on graduate students' assessments of their principal investigators. Gender and Education, 26(6), 601-617.||This paper explores how gender influences the way that faculty members are held accountable to gendered societal expectations related to scientists, faculty members, and leaders. In particular, women faculty members in the sciences, particularly those who lead large research groups, may be at a triple disadvantage: they must act in ways that contradict ideals of femininity in these multiple aspects of their professional lives. The data for this inductive, largely exploratory analysis come from a mixed-methods qualitative study of five chemistry research groups at a research-intensive US university. I find that gendered expectations do impact the way that men and women faculty are evaluated by their students, particularly the way that women faculty are judged.|
|Moles, J. (2014). A fair game or no contest? Contested identities in teacher education. Gender and Education, 26(2), 168-179.
|| The narrative of one ethnic minority early childhood student teacher tells of her journey as she (re)constructs her identities as a Cook Island woman and as a pre-service teacher, during a teacher education course in New Zealand. This story conveys her experiences of learning across different pedagogical paradigms. Findings show that teacher education lecturers can significantly enhance the learning experience for ethnic minority pre-service teachers by incorporating existing knowledges and understandings in course content and delivery.
|Francis, B., Burke, P., & Read, B. (2014). The submergence and re-emergence of gender in undergraduate accounts of university experience. Gender and Education, 26(1), 1-17.|| Gender distinction has been shown to characterise both undergraduate experiences and outcomes. Yet research recounted in this article supports work that shows that young people are often unaware of such trends, subscribing instead to individualist perspectives that foreground equality of opportunity and agency. This article examines the gender continuities and divergences in 64 undergraduate students' accounts of their experiences, and constructions of peers and lecturers, in higher education. Concepts of heteroglossia and monoglossia are applied to gender to explain how students submerged ‘structure’ and inequality in their accounts, but how discourses that presented the genders as distinct (and in which the masculine is elevated over the feminine) nevertheless ‘bubbled up’ in their articulations. The students tended to reject the notion that gender and other structural differences impact their experiences and outcomes; yet their broader discussions frequently reflected (often stereotypical) monoglossic constructions of gender difference. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for the sociology of education and for higher-education pedagogy.
|Tinkler, P., & Jackson, C. (2014). The past in the present: historicising contemporary debates about gender and education. Gender and Education, 26(1), 70-86.||History is often embedded, explicitly or implicitly, in discourses on contemporary aspects of gender and education, but relatively few scholars engage critically with history as they grapple with current issues. This article posits ‘historical sensibility’ as a means of engaging constructively with the past when scrutinising and working on current issues in gender and education. Four features of historical sensibility are mapped out and compared with established ways of approaching the relationship between the present and past. The utility of historical sensibility is demonstrated with reference to ongoing debates about the feminisation of schooling, the sexualisation of children and the leisure pursuits of young women.|
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